Reduced-Complexity Estimation of FM Instantaneous Parameters via Deep-Learning


  • Huda Saleem student
  • Zahir M. Hussain



Instantaneous frequency estimation, ST, LFM, QFM signal, sensors, Gaussian noise, SαS noise, GRU, LSTM, BiLSTM, 1D- CNN, 2D-CNN, deep learning, ROC, GSNR.


Signal frequency estimation is a fundamental problem in signal processing. Deep learning is a fundamental method to solve this problem. This paper used five deep learning methods and three datasets including different singles Single Tone (ST), Linear- Frequency-Modulated (LFM), and Quadratic-Frequency-Modulated (QFM). This signal is affected by Additive White Gaussian (AWG) noise and Additive Symmetric alpha Stable (SαS) noise. Geometric SNR (GSNR) is used to determine the impulsiveness of noise in a Gaussian and SαS noise mixture. Deep learning methods are Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Bi-Direction Long Short-Term Memory (BiLSTM), and Convolution Neural Network (1D-CNN & 2D-CNN). When compared to a deep learning classifier with few layers to get on high accuracy and complexity reduces for Instantaneous Frequency (IF) estimation, Linear Chirp Rate (LCR) estimation, and Quadratic Chirp Rate (QCR) estimation. IF estimation of ST signals, IF and LCR estimation of LFM signals, and IF, LCR, and QCR estimation of QFM signals. The accuracy of the ST dataset in GRU is 58.09, LSTM is 46.61, BiLSTM is 45.95, 1D-CNN is 51.48, and 2D-CNN is 54.13. The accuracy of the LFM dataset in GRU is 82.89, LSTM is 66.28, BiLSTM is 20%, 1D-CNN is 74.79, and 2D-CNN is 98.26. The accuracy of the QFM dataset in GRU is 78.76, LSTM is 67.8, BiLSTM is 69.91, 1D-CNN is 75.8, and 2D-CNN is 98.2. The results show that 2D-CNN is better than other methods for parameter estimation in LFM signals and QFM signals, and the GRU is better for parameter estimation in ST signals.


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How to Cite

Saleem, H., & M. Hussain , Z. (2023). Reduced-Complexity Estimation of FM Instantaneous Parameters via Deep-Learning . Journal of Kufa for Mathematics and Computer, 10(1), 53–62.

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