@article{Saleem_M. Hussain_2023, title={Instantaneous Frequency and Chirp Rate Estimation for Noisy Quadratic FM Signals by CNN}, volume={10}, url={https://journal.uokufa.edu.iq/index.php/jkmc/article/view/10369}, DOI={10.31642/JoKMC/2018/100201 }, abstractNote={<p><em>Deep learning and machine learning are widely employed in various domains. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Convolution Neural Network (CNN) are used to estimate the Instantons Frequency (IF), Linear Chirp Rate (LCR), and Quadratic Chirp Rate (QCR) for Quadratic Frequency Modulated (QFM) signals under Additive White Gaussian (AWG) noise and Additive Symmetric alpha Stable (ASαS) noise. SαS distributions are impulsive noise disturbances except for a few circumstances, lack a closed-form Probability Density Function (PDF), and an infinite second-order statistic. Geometric SNR (GSNR) is used to determine the impulsiveness of mixture noise for Gaussian and SαS noise. ANN is a machine learning classifier with few layers that reduce FE, LCRE, and QCRE complexity and achieve high accuracy. CNN is a deep learning classifier that is built with multiple layers of FE, LCRE, and QCRE. CNN is more accurate than ANN when dealing with large amounts of data and determining optimal features. The results reveal that SαS noise is substantially more damaging to FE, LCRE, and QCRE than Gaussian noise, even when the magnitude is modest, and it is less damaging when alpha is greater than one. After training DCNN for FE, LCRE, and QCRE estimation of QFM signals. The 2D-CNN model accuracy achieved 98.7603 and 1D-CNN is </em>75.8678<em> for ten epochs. ANN model accuracy achieved 37.5 for 1000 epochs. The accuracy of TFD (spectrogram &amp; pspectrum) for frequency estimation of QFM signals was 38.4254 by spectrogram and 38.6746 by pspectrum. </em></p>}, number={2}, journal={Journal of Kufa for Mathematics and Computer}, author={Saleem, Huda and M. Hussain , Zahir}, year={2023}, month={Aug.}, pages={1–9} }