Iraqi Education in the Ottoman Era


  • Abbas Kadhim


Iraq, History, Education, Ottoman


The Ottomans were following the Hanafi madhhab (school
of Jurisprudence).(1) But they became patrons to the followers
of all four Sunni schools granting them with financial support
to build mosques and schools. By contrast, their relation to
the Shi'a, who made a significant percentage of the population,
was very complex, ranging from the extreme hostility of Sultans
like Selim I to the relevant tolerance of Abdul Hamid II. The
Ottomans generally did not extend their patronage to the
Shi'a, leaving them dependent on Iranian financial support and
the donations of their wealthy individuals and, obviously, the
religiously mandated financial dues.


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How to Cite

Kadhim, A. (2013) “Iraqi Education in the Ottoman Era”, Kufa Review (Discontinued), 3(2). Available at: (Accessed: 25 March 2023).