Impact of menstruation on school performance in Sarwaran and Shahid Khajabawa high school in Erbil city


  • Safia Sabry Piro University of Duhok
  • Hamdia Mirkhan Ahmed Hawler Medical University



impact, menstruation, school performance


Background: Menstruation is episodic uterine bleeding in response to cyclic hormonal changes and lead to the following discomforts for the girls: a bloody discharge of the vagina, pains, abdominal bloating, headache, fatigue, breast tenderness, nausea, vomiting, loose stools, mood swings, irritability, and sweating which affect on school performance. 

Objectives: finding out the effect of menstruation and associated discomforts on school performance including attendance, assignment and activities among female students.

Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in the two high school of Erbil city on 185 female students (90 of Sarwaran and 95 of Shahid khajabawa high school) during 2nd of Jan to 30th of May, 2012. Data were collected by an interview, using a questionnaire designed by the researchers. Chi-square test was used to study the significance of association between school performance and menstrual characteristics and associated physical discomforts.

Results: the affected percentage of students by menstruation on their school performance were as following: school homework (69.2%), school attendance (23.2%), exam (62.7%) and participation in class activity and presentation (57.1%). There were significant association between age at menarche, amount of blood flow, taking medication during menstruation and menstrual discomforts (abdominal pain, back pain, nausea and vomiting, anxiety) with school performance.

Conclusion: Menstruation characteristics and associated physical and psychological discomforts affect on school performance.



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How to Cite

Piro, S. S., & Ahmed, H. M. (2012). Impact of menstruation on school performance in Sarwaran and Shahid Khajabawa high school in Erbil city. Kufa Journal for Nursing Sciences, 2(3), 63–70.

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