• Sadiq Kadhum Lafta Alzurfi faculty of science/ kufa university /Iraq
  • Khitam Jameel Mushtaq Faculty of science - University of Kufa-Iraq




Algae, Adsorption, Bioremediation, Biochar


         Due to the constant discharge of many pollutants into the aquatic environment, water pollution is a major environmental concern on a global level. The treatment of heavy metals found in wastewater has attracted attention to novel technologies in recent years. The utilization of biological processes has been investigated because they are dependable, straightforward, and eco-friendly. Through this review, the researchers attempt to disseminate information regarding the environmental dangers posed by heavy metals, the function of bioremediators employed in heavy metal processing, the many microalgae strains utilized for heavy metal removal, and their modes of action for remediation. Different external and intracellular processes are used by diverse microalgae species to remove heavy metals. In-depth discussion is provided on the assessment of microalgae's processing potential and the usage of biochar generated from algae in the removal of heavy metals. It is obvious that bioremediation of heavy metals alone is not a viable business plan. As a result, additional work is being done to create integrated treatment plans to make this procedure more affordable and long-lasting. This review describes recent developments in the use of microalgae for heavy metal therapy. Additionally, the challenges that must be met in order to improve this process efficiency, economy, sustainability, and cleanliness are covered. From the comments in this review, it can be inferred that bioremediation can be crucial to the sustainable processing of heavy metals and the development of the bio-economy.


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How to Cite

Kadhum Lafta Alzurfi, S., & Jameel Mushtaq, K. (2023). HEAVY METAL BIOREMEDIATION BY ALGAE: A REVIEW OF REMOVAL METHODS, BY-PRODUCT RECOVERY, OBSTACLES, AND POTENTIAL FUTURE APPLICATIONS. Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology, 15(2), 105–127. https://doi.org/10.36320/ajb/v15.i2.12531