Vinblastine and Vincristine Alkaloids Production From Callus of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don under Some abiotic factors
This experiment was conducted in Faculty of Science labs, Kufa University, carried out during 2013-2014 to study many experiments to induce callus tissues from leaves of (Catharanthus roseus ( L. ) G. Don in vitro using MS medium supplemented with Dichlorophenoxy actic acid (2,4-D) at difference concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5) mg/l with the interaction of (BA) benzyl adenine at concentrations of (0.5, 1, 1.5) mg/l. Identically callus fresh weight, then use it in the next experiments and investigate the effect of abiotic factors (drought and sucrose) on vinblastine and vincristine production from callus tissue, and leaves of intact plant. This study include determination the catalase activity, proline and total soluble carbohydrates content as responsible to the variety of the stresses in callus as well as quantities and qualities determination of vinblastine and vincristine using TLC (Thin layer chromatography ) and HPLC(high performance liquid chromatography). Results reveled that the highest fresh weight of callus (3.276) g was for (1mg/l 2,4-D + 1mg/l BA ) combination treatment. However, the results showed that the additions of abiotic factors to the callus cultural medium cause difference results in fresh and dry weights of callus in accumulation phase, reducing the fresh and dry weight in all treatments expect sucrose 40 g/l treatment which gave increase in fresh and dry weight. Also, this results showed that all treatments increase total soluble carbohydrates, proline content and catalase enzyme activity with significant difference compared with control treatment and significant increase of alkaloids production with the superiority of (vinblastine and vincristine) content in Callus with abiotic factors stresses than the content in control treatment( without any factor).