Risk Factors and Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer in Patients Attending Hiwa Oncology/Hematology Hospital in Sulaimaniyah City


  • Hadeel A. Ibrahim University of Sulaimani
  • Amani F. Abbas University of Sulaimani




Ovarian cancer, Risk factors, Symptoms, Retrospective study, Silent killer


Background: Ovarian cancer is responsible for higher mortality rate than any other cancer of the woman genital system.

Aims of the study: this study aims to find the risk aspects and symptoms of ovarian cancer in patients visiting Hiwa Oncology/Hematology hospital in Sulaimaniyah City.

Methodology: This study was a retrospective case-control study conducted in Hiwa Oncology / Hematology Hospital in Sulaimaniyah city, Northern Iraq, the period of the study was 1 / July / 2019 to 1 / march / 2020, based on the recorded database system of Hiwa Oncology / Hematology Hospital from 2013 - 2019, involving 100 diagnosed patients and 200 healthy women as control. Personal information such as age, education, economic status, cigarette smoking, height, weight, diet and eating habits, and used oral contraceptive pills were collected.

Results: The incidence of ovarian cancer in 2013 was 13 cases which increased to 83 cases in 2019. The highest percentage (30%) of patients' age range were 40- 49 years (p = 0.004). Most cases 60% had an insufficient economic state and 33 % of cases were illiterate women. Passive smoking appeared to be more prone to ovarian cancer: especially those with a smoking duration of > 5 years. Additionally, 68% of patients used oral contraceptive pills with a duration range of 1-5 years. Also, a highly significant correlation between diet and ovarian cancer was found in patients. The majority of the patients (76%) complained of abdominal pain and abdominal distension as the first presenting symptoms of ovarian cancer.

Conclusion: This study concluded that age, economic status, educational level, height, passive smoking, weight, diet, and oral contraceptive pill usage were directly accompanied by the possibility of ovarian cancer.

Recommendations: All women especially those after age of 40 years old, should pay attention to education and health awareness including symptoms and causes of ovarian cancer, especially attention to decrease weight and passive smoking and using a healthy diet through decrease consumption the sweets, dairy products, and animal fat and increase consumption of legumes, fish meat, vegetable and fruits.


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Author Biographies

Hadeel A. Ibrahim, University of Sulaimani

Department of Fundamental Nursing \ College of Nursing

Amani F. Abbas, University of Sulaimani

Department of Maternity & neonate of Nursing \ College of Nursing




How to Cite

Ibrahim, H. A., & Abbas, A. F. (2021). Risk Factors and Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer in Patients Attending Hiwa Oncology/Hematology Hospital in Sulaimaniyah City. Kufa Journal for Nursing Sciences, 11(2), 201–211. https://doi.org/10.36321/kjns.vi20212.2065

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