Risk Factors for Hip Fracture among Elderly Adults in Erbil City A Case-Control Study
Keywords:Risk factor, Hip fracture, Elderly adult, Case-Control study, fall
Objective: The study aimed to find out the factors associated with hip fracture among elderly adults in Erbil City.
Methods: The present case-control study conducted among elderly participants in two governmental hospitals and Geriatric Home in Erbil City of Kurdistan Region of Iraq from 8th of March to 3rd of August 2016. The study participants included elderly with more than and equal to 60 years old, both genders, conscious, with hip fractured (50 for case group) and without hip fracture (50 for control group). The control was matched to cases in age, gender and falling cause of hip fracture. The Questioner was designed as a tool of data collection and consisted of two main parts, socio-demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements and risk factors assessment of hip fracture. Data was collected through direct interview. The data was analyzed through using statistical application (SPSS V. 23) which included descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of frequency, percentage, odds ratio, confidence interval and Chi-square test.
Results: Most of the study sample in both case and control groups were illiterate, married, keeping house, from urban area. There is highly significant association between case-control groups regarding Osteoporosis, Arthritis, Sleep disturbance, Use of medication such as sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic, anti-depressive, antihypertensive drugs, Stroke, Hypertension, knee osteoarthritis, history of hip fracture, Body Mass Index, Visual impairment, Lower limb dysfunction, Functional limitations, Low taking Milk and Calcium intake, low Sun exposure, Heavy Smoking, Eating fishless than twice a week, and Sports or physical exercise less than 4 times per a week. The Odds Ratio of all of above risk factors among study participants in both case and control groups is in increased associated risk with hip fracture among elderly adults starting from 11.385 to 2.447 times of risk.
Conclusions: The highest risk factors that associated with increasing occurrence of hip fracture are Osteoporosis and taking less than 1000 mg of milk and calcium in the food per day.
Recommendations: The study recommends beginning hip fracture prevention in early adult life, starting by assessing risk factors and working to keep them low.
KUFA JOURNAL FOR NURSING SCIENCES Vol. 6 No. 3 Sep. through Dec. 2016
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