Barriers for Uptaking The Pap Smear among Nurses-Midwives in Baghdad City Hospitals


  • Iqbal M. Abbas University of Baghdad
  • Ahrar M. Rashied Ministry of Health



Assessment, barriers, Nurses-Midwives, pap smear


Background: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst the gynecological cancers worldwide, Cervical cancer is potentially preventable, and effective screening programs can lead to a significant reduction in the morbidity and mortality associated with this cancer.

Objective: The study aimed to assess the barriers concerning uptaking the Pap Smear among nurse-midwives and determine the association between Barriers of uptaking Pap Smear and their demographic, reproductive variables in Baghdad city Hospitals.

Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out in September/ 1/2013 to December /30/ 2013 through a "non-probability" purposive sample of (170) nurse-midwives which was selected of (9) hospitals in Baghdad city. The data were collected by the investigator who interviewed the nurses-midwives and filled out the constructed a questionnaire formats which designed for the purpose of the study and comprised of two main parts: part one including: demographic, reproductive, past gynecology disorder and pap smear test history variables, part two including: Barriers for uptaking pap smear. The validity of the questionnaire was determined through a panel of experts in the specialist fields while the reliability of the questionnaire was determined by calculating the Reliability coefficient. Thereafter, the data were analyzed through the application of descriptive analysis measures (frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics approach (chi-Square).

Results: The study findings indicated that most of the nurse-midwives had not implemented pap smear test for themselves because there are many of barriers toward doing the test, there were high mean of score of nurse- midwives barriers concerning pap smear for many reason such as feeling healthy, physicians does not request me, don't have discomfort or pain, lack advice of other health providers, lack encouragement of husband, family, friends, don't know suitable age of pap consequence while low mean score with other items

Conclusion: There are many of barriers that affect for uptaking the pap test among nurse-midwives for many reasons that need to be solving the problem by managed it and encouraging to taking the pap test by polices of our country.

Recommendations: The study recommends that need for advanced training course for nurse-midwives and other health care providers for uptaking pap smear, and initiation national screening program guidelines at best and free service and overcoming barriers to apply the test among nurse- midwives .


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Author Biography

Ahrar M. Rashied, Ministry of Health

Al Yarmook Teaching Hospital




How to Cite

Abbas, I. M., & Rashied, A. M. (2014). Barriers for Uptaking The Pap Smear among Nurses-Midwives in Baghdad City Hospitals. Kufa Journal for Nursing Sciences, 4(3), 13–24.

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