Biological phenomena between causal and teleological interpretation


  • Zaid Abbas Kareem University of kufa/ College of Arts / Department of Philosophy.
  • Ahmed Kadhim Ali University of kufa/ College of medicine



philosophy of science, biology, causation, teleology, function


This study, tagged with (biological phenomena between causal and teleological interpretation), is concerned with showing the unique characteristics of biological studies in interpreting phenomena.

Biological sciences were not separated from philosophy except in the nineteenth century, and during that period chemical and physical sciences in particular achieved great success, which made them a systematic model and explanation of the scientific project, and they became a central axis of measurement. For this reason, the philosophy of science paid great attention to the physical revolution until it almost became a philosophy Science is the philosophy of physics, and this perception led to the abbreviation of all experimental sciences in this type of philosophy and was at the forefront of biology, and this reduction included all the concepts, terms and mechanisms of the philosophy of science, especially with regard to interpretation.

If the natural sciences (physics and chemistry) had long ago excluded teleological interpretations and emphasized causal explanations, then biological sciences have multiple interpretations of phenomena between causality and teleology, in order to complicate the phenomena that they study and try to explain


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How to Cite

Kareem, Z., and A. Ali. “Biological Phenomena Between Causal and Teleological Interpretation”. Kufa Journal of Arts, vol. 1, no. 55, Mar. 2023, pp. 315-36, doi:10.36317/kaj/2023/v1.i55.11231.