Factors affecting apically extrusion debris during root canal treatment -A literature review

Factors affecting apically extrusion debris


  • Murtada Qadir Muhaibes Aesthetic and restorative dentistry department, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Shatha A. Alwakeel College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad/Iraq




Debris extrusion, flare up, Ni–Ti file, postoperative pain


The extrusion of intracanal debris as well as irrigants is a regular occurrence during root canal therapy; nevertheless, this issue has not been satisfactorily resolved by any instrument or method to date. Even if it's not always possible, a shaping or irrigation method should reduce the likelihood of apical extrusion as much as possible. This is because flare-ups may result from any irritation that is directed towards the periapical tissues. During the course of the previous decade, there was a rapid development of root canal instruments and irrigation systems; several of these instruments and systems have been evaluated for their propensity to extrude debris. This research was conducted with the intention of locating literature that discusses the assessment of debris, bacteria, and irrigant extrusion during root canal therapy. The terms "apical extrusion," "debris extrusion," and "endodontic treatment" were entered into the search engines PubMed, Ovid, and MEDLINE, respectively. The search through the relevant literature spanned more than 30 years, all the way up to 2012. The scope of this review was restricted to the apical extrusion of debris and irrigants, the extrusion of fluids by irrigation systems, and the extrusion of bacteria. In the publications that were retrieved, further searching in the reference sections provided information on issues that were relevant to apical extrusion. This study offers an update on the most recent developments concerning apical extrusion.


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How to Cite

Muhaibes, M. Q., & Alwakeel, S. A. (2023). Factors affecting apically extrusion debris during root canal treatment -A literature review: Factors affecting apically extrusion debris. Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology, 15(2), 55–66. https://doi.org/10.36320/ajb/v15.i2.12433