Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and his opponents


  • Prof.Dr. Ohood Hussein Jabr Kufa University / Kufa Studies Center



caliph, opposition, Muslims, Kharijites, dialogue


Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds, and prayers and peace be upon the Master of the Messengers and his pure and pure family, and after:

     Imam Ali (peace be upon him) had principles that he adheres to, which are the principles of the true Islamic religion, and he did not waver from them one iota, and he never compromised at the expense of the truth, and did not change his behavior in all circumstances. It cost the Imam (peace be upon him) a lot in his life, and he became his opponents, who worked secretly and publicly to undermine his caliphate, and it came to the point that his life would be the price of these positions.

And the Imam (peace be upon him) was, despite his possession of power and strength, but he was lenient with his enemies and opponents to the extreme, and he did not leave a way to convince them until they came back to their senses, through constructive dialogue in which the Imam respects their values ​​and convictions.

The research is based on the reasons that created the opposition, and who are the most prominent people in opposition to the Imam, peace be upon him, and how the Imam dealt with these, in addition to what he directed his companions and group with in dealing with the other party. With him, after assuming the caliphate, he removed the governors of the former Caliph Uthman bin Affan .. including the governor of the Levant, Muawiyah bin Sufyan - and replaced them with others, and here began his declared battle with Muawiyah - the mean ruler hiding behind the Umayyad caliphate of Othman.

Muawiyah was a front that included everyone who wanted to join the opposition to the Imam, peace be upon him, and the Kufic community included a large group, including Al-Ash’ath bin Qais, Amr bin Harith and their ilk whose interests were struck during the era of the Imam, peace be upon him. Peace be upon him, aiming to overthrow his government

He provoked their indignation, so they conspired not to displace him, so at that time the people were divided into two groups between supporters of the Imam’s rule and those who oppose it, but the Imam did not force anyone to join him, and thus the Imam is one of the first to implement democracy in his politics, and in fact, he knew accurate knowledge of the morals of those who left him behind. He realizes the greed and craving for the world and the desire for it in their hearts.

   The positions of the Imam, peace be upon him, towards his opponents were honorable, more than that narrow view of the enemies, for he put mercy for people and the interests of the nation over his feelings and what these caused him of pain, and he was stripped of his feelings towards them (And if he wanted to discipline the disobedient, he did not lack means nor hindered him from them)

The Imam (peace be upon him) was inclined to peace, reconciliation and harmony among people

 This does not mean that Ali (peace be upon him) used to reject war in all cases, but war has necessities.


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ــ القرآن الكريم

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ــ الإدارة والنظام الاداري عند الإمام (ع)، تأليف د محسن باقر الموسوي الغديرــ للطباعة والنشر والتوزيع ، بيروت ـ لبنان ، ط1 ، 1998م.

ــ أسس بناء الدولة الاسلامية في فكر الامام علي (ع) ، تأليف علي سعد تومان عدوة ، النجف الاشرف ،2012 م.

ــ الإمام علي بن أبي طالب، تأليف عبد الفتاح عبد المقصود، منشورات مكتبة العرفان ـ دار مكتبة التربية ـ بيروت ،دـ ت.

ــ الإمام علي بن أبي طالب وحقوق الانسان ، د حسن الزين ، دار الفكر الحديث للطباعة والنشر ـ بيروت ، د.ت .

ــ الإمام علي صوت العدالة الانسانية ، تأليف جورج جرداق ،مطبوعات دار الاندلس ـ النجف الاشرف ، بيروت ـ لبنان ، ط1 ، 2010م .

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ــ تاريخ الاسلام الثقافي والسياسي ،تأليف صائب عبد الحميد ، مؤسسة دائرة الفقه الاسلامي ، ط2 ، 2006م .

ــ تاريخ الرسل والملوك ، ابن جرير الطبري ، دار الكتب العلمبة ، بيروت ، ط1 ، 1405 هـ .

ــ حقوق الانسان عند الامام علي بن ابي طالب (ع) ، د. غسان السعد ط2 بغداد ، 2008م .

ــ شرح نهج البلاغة ، عز الدين أبي حامد عبد الحميد بن هبة الله المدائني الشهير بابن ابي الحديد ، مؤسسة الاعلمي للمطبوعات ، بيروت ــ لبنان ، 2009م .

ـ العقد الفريد ،شهاب الدين أحمد المعروف بابن عبد ربه الاندلسي ، دار ومكتبة الهلال ــ بيروت ،2011م .

ـ الكامل في التاريخ ، ابن الاثير الجزري تحقيق عمر عبد السلام تدمري ، دار الكتاب العربي بيروت ـ لبنان ، ط1، 1997م.

ــ مروج الذهب ومعادن الجوهر ، تصنيف أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي ، تحقيق عبد الأمير علي مهنا ، مؤسسة الاعلمي للمطبوعات ،ط2 بيروت ـ لبنان ، 2010م .

ــ المعارضة السياسية في تجربة أمير المؤمنين ، تأليف عبد الزهراء عثمان محمد ، دار الهادي ،بيروت ـ لبنان ، ط1 ، 2003م .

ــ المنطلقات الانسانية والاخلاقية في رسالة الامام علي (ع) الى مالك بن الاشتر ، تأليف د خميس غربي حسين ، العراق ـ كربلاء ، مؤسسة علوم نهج البلاغة، ط،1 ،20017م.

ــ موسوعة التربية الجهادية وأهدافها عند الامام علي ، د جواد مالك ، الدار العربية للموسوعات ، بيروت ـ لبنان ، ط1، 2012م .

ــ نهج البلاغة، المختار من كلام أمير المؤمنين لجامعه الشريف الرضي محمد ابن الحسين، تحقيق هاشم الميلاني، العتبة العلوية المقدسة ، 2010م ، تأليف علي سعد تومان عدوة ، النجف الاشرف ،2012 م.



How to Cite

Jabr, O. (2023) “Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and his opponents”, Journal of Kufa Studies Center, 1(69), pp. 111–134. doi: 10.36322/jksc.v1i69.12553.

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