Spatial variation of the average household expenditure in Iraq for the period (2008-2016) using indices applications


  • The teacher, Dr. Haider Hussein Abdel Sattar Ramadan University of Baghdad - College of Arts - Department of Geography and Geographic Information Systems



records, Spatial and temporal variations of the average household expenditure index on goods and services, Aggregate indices applications of Laspear, Bach, Fisher and Marshall


The study aims to expand the analysis by quantitative methods in the methodology of geographical scientific analysis, as one of the tools of the statistical scientific method (calculation and analysis of indices) was taken to analyze a demographic-economic phenomenon (the average total expenditure of households on goods and services in Iraq according to market prices) spatially among the governorates Iraq, and through successive periods of time, as a follow-up and interpretation of the spatial and temporal relationships of the phenomenon and determining its trends, which represents the problem of the study based on the data of the surveys conducted by the Ministry of Planning during the mentioned period for families in Iraq. It was carried out in accordance with the steps and literature of scientific research, where the theoretical framework of the study was clarified, and the steps of scientific analysis were shown, from defining the problem and simulating it with realistic hypotheses, taking the results and discussing them statistically, and interpreting their differences according to their geographical facts, in an effort to find out the economic situation of the population. The study showed that there is a spatial and temporal variation in the volume of household spending between the governorates of Iraq during the calculated period, according to the applications of the variable base in the indices, as the change in the indices (increase and decrease) included all the governorates of Iraq for reasons that can be summed up in the state of economic, political and social instability as a result of the accumulations of occupation And then the two crises that Iraq went through, namely the drop in oil prices and the occupation of ISIS, which was reflected in the dynamic change in the level of household spending on goods and services, as well as the lack of clarity of the future vision of the government’s economic policies.


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How to Cite

Ramadan, Haider. “Spatial Variation of the Average Household Expenditure in Iraq for the Period (2008-2016) Using Indices Applications”. Kufa Journal of Arts, vol. 1, no. 45, Oct. 2021, pp. 421-44, doi:10.36317/kaj/2020/v1.i45.1741.

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